(4) only All of the above (1) (2) (3) (2) and (4) (1) and (3) Methods: For 42 months, and authors followed two groups of subjects who had amalgam restorations placed in a previous study. Under the same load, the maximum tensile stresses and deflections in the amalgam restoration in-creased at least threefold with a zinc oxide-eugenol base as compared with a ZnPO4 cement base. Under the same load, the maximum tensile stresses and deflections in the amalgam restoration increased at least threefold with a zinc oxide-eugenol base as compared with a ZnPO4 cement base. Total restoration replacement is the most common treatment for defective amalgam restoration and represents a major part of restorative dental treatment. study the stress induced in a Class 1 amalgam restoration when supported by bases of vary-ing materials and thicknesses. Background: Despite a lack of data based on clinical research, many positive characteristics have been attributed to the placement of amalgam restorations with an adhesive resin liner. * As a base under amalgam and non resin restorations. [1] , [5] , [6] However, this approach contradicts the current trend toward minimal interventional procedures to decrease the risk of pulpal injuries and save tooth structures. Low-copper amalgam commonly consists of mercury (50%), silver (~22–32%), tin (~14%), zinc (~8%) and other trace metals.. Massler7 showed that the base under an amalgam restoration should inhibit penetration of mercury into the underlying dentine and thus prevent dis- coloration of the tooth. 4. decrease tooth discolouration. base under the amalgam restoration, the second group received silver amalgam restoration along cavity varnish application and the third one received the bonded silver amalgam. 2. decrease marginal leakage. • Amalgam Currently • Light cured Ca (OH)2 liner • GIC base For indirect restoration: • A base is used to block undercuts • Preferable to be bondable to dentin to prevent dislodgement during temporization and impression taking. * Sealing coronal portion of teeth under endodontics treatment. * Temporary restoration in emergency treatments. * Excellent physical properties due to added unique polymer reinforcing agents. The cavity was prepared with the air turbine having plenty of water irrigation. 3. stimulate secondary dentine formation. * High compressive strength- … A computerized dental model was used to study the stress induced in a Class 1 amalgam restoration when supported by bases of varying materials and thickness. The use of cavity varnish under an amalgam restoration will 1. have a bactericidal effect. An amalgam restoration should not be placed close to the pulpal tissues of the tooth without the use of a liner or base (or both) between the pulp and the amalgam. Dental amalgams were first documented in a Tang Dynasty medical text written by Su Gong (苏恭) in 659, and appeared in Germany in 1528. - … Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. 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