Moreover, what is Cisco's architecture for enterprise network? As a result, the configuration choices for features in the distribution layer are often determined by the requirements of the access layer or the core layer, or by the need to act as an interface to both. Normal conditions include such events as change windows and normal or expected traffic flows and traffic patterns. This design is difficult to scale and increases the cabling requirements because each new building distribution switch needs full-mesh connectivity to all the distribution switches. See Figure 17. Figure 18 Defects per Million Calculation. Tools, such as the Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager (EEM), provide the capability to distribute the scripts to switches in the network—rather than running all scripts centrally in a single server. The best practices listed in this chapter, such as following the hierarchical model, deploying Layer 3 switches, and utilizing the Catalyst 6500 and Nexus 7000 switches in the design, scratch only the surface of features required to support such a scale. The next subsections detail key enterprise campus design concepts. One of the key differences between wired and wireless environments is primarily a function of the differences between shared and dedicated media. As the port security example illustrates, there are many cases where traditional security features and quality-of-service (QoS) features can and should be used to both address security and QoS requirements, but also to improve the availability of the campus infrastructure as a whole. Resilient design is not a feature nor is there a specific thing that you do in order to achieve it. The core should also have the minimal control plane configuration combined with highly available devices configured with the correct amount of physical redundancy to provide for this non-stop service capability. Configuration for both per-subnet or VLAN features such as access lists, ip-helper, and others must be made only once, not replicated and kept in sync between two separate switches. In providing all these functions the distribution layer participates in both the access-distribution block and the core. Business environments are continuing to move toward requiring true 7x24x365 availability. The services edge policies can be implemented in the data center or in larger networks locally in the campus services block module. 584. This alternative configuration, in which the Layer-2/3 demarcation is moved from the distribution switch to the access switch appears to be a major change to the design, but is actually simply an extension of the best practice multi-tier design. Multiple aggregation modules in the aggregation layer support connectivity scaling from the access layer. The network design must also permit the occasional, but necessary, hardware and software upgrade/change to be made without disrupting any network applications. Figure 1-17 depicts a sample small campus network with campus backbone that interconnects the data center. It might span a single floor, building or even a large group of buildings spread over an extended geographic area. Switches in small campus network design might not require high-end switching performance or future scaling capability. Another is the movement from a design with subnets contained within a single access switch to the routed-access design. As an additional step, each device should be configured to minimize the possibility of any attacker gaining access or compromising the switch itself. What does it mean to create a resilient design in the context of the campus network? •Leverage the hardware CPU protection mechanisms and Control Plane Protection (CoPP) features of the Catalyst switches to limit and prioritize traffic forwarded to each switch CPU. Figure 21 Evolution of the Converged Campus Networks. The integration of wired and wireless access methods into a common campus architecture is just the latest phase of network convergence. In review, the distribution layer provides the following enhancements to the campus network design: Figure 1-14 illustrates the distribution layer interconnecting several access layer switches. Multiple devices are now dependent on the availability of the access switch and its ability to maintain the necessary level of power for all of the attached end devices. The list of requirements and challenges that the current generation of campus networks must address is highly diverse and includes the following: –Unified Communications, financial, medical, and other critical systems are driving requirement for five nines (99999) availability and improved convergence times necessary for real-time interactive applications. A five nines network, which has been considered the hallmark of excellent enterprise network design for many years, allows for up to five (5) minutes of outage or downtime per year. Addressing these threats requires an approach that leverages both prevention and detection techniques to address the root cause attack vectors or vulnerabilities that security hacks use—as well as provide for rapid response in the event of an outbreak or attack. The multi-tier design has two basic variations, as shown in Figure 7, that primarily differ only in the manner in which VLANs are defined. Figure 8 Routed Access Distribution Block Design. •Traffic Management and Control Flexibility—Unified communications, collaborative business approaches, and software models continue to evolve—along with a trend toward increased growth in peer-to-peer traffic flows. –Time and resources to implement new business applications are decreasing. The tasks of implementing and operating a network are two components of the Cisco Lifecycle model. Figure 1 The Layers of the Campus Hierarchy. The enterprise campus is usually understood as that portion of the computing infrastructure that provides access to network communication services and resources to end users and devices spread over a single geographic location. This could involve acquisition, partnering, or outsourcing of business functions. There are currently three basic design choices for configuring the access-distribution block and the associated control plane: While all three of these designs use the same basic physical topology and cabling plant there are differences in where the Layer-2 and Layer-3 boundaries exist, how the network topology redundancy is implemented, and how load-balancing works—along with a number of other key differences between each of the design options. Any large complex system must be built using a set of modularized components that can be assembled in a hierarchical and structured manner. MODULAR NETWORK DESIGN While the hierarchical network design works well within the campus infrastructure, the networks expanded beyond these borders. These early programs were highly optimized and very efficient. The benefits obtained through a systematic design approach are also covered. They all started as simple highly optimized connections between a small number of PCs, printers, and servers. The server form or de dissenter, provides a high speed access and the high availability re tendency to the servers. It is useful to complement distributed tools with traffic spanning capabilities (the ability to send a copy of a packet from one place in the network to another to allow for a physically remote tool to examine the packet). While all vendors extensively test and certify that equipment is working correctly before it is shipped to a customer, many things can happen to a piece of equipment before it is finally installed into the production network. The third consideration is a measure of business disruption—how disruptive to the business will any failure be. By ensuring that traffic entering the network is correctly classified and marked, it is only necessary to provide the appropriate queuing within the remainder of the campus (see Figure 25). The example depicts physical distribution segments as buildings. Accounting and performance are two aspects of the FCAPS model that are primarily concerned with the monitoring of capacity and the billing for the use of the network. What services should it provide to end users and devices? If necessary, a separate core layer can use different transport technology, routing protocols, or switching hardware than the rest of the campus, providing for more flexible design options when needed. Implementing a separate core for the campus network also provides one additional specific advantage as the network grows: A separate core provides the ability to scale the size of the campus network in a structured fashion that minimizes overall complexity. When we know that the alternative path for any traffic flow will follow the same hierarchical pattern as the original path, we can avoid making certain design decisions—such as ensuring the access layer can support extra traffic loads. It is one part of the effort to aid the complex operations of application level security by leveraging the networks integrated security services. The emerging Human Network, as it has been termed by the media, illustrates a significant shift in the perception of and the requirements and demands on the campus network. Having the ability to operate the campus as a non-stop system is dependent on the appropriate capabilities being designed-in from the start. Catalyst and Nexus switches support access lists and filtering without effecting switching performance by supporting these features in the hardware switch path. It introduces the key architectural components and services that are necessary to deploy a highly available, secure, and service-rich campus network. Both access and core are essentially dedicated special purpose layers. As an example, in a multi-building campus design like that shown in Figure 3, having a separate core layer allows for design solutions for cabling or other external constraints to be developed without compromising the design of the individual distribution blocks. All of these various security attacks fall within six fundamental classes of security threats that the campus design must consider: •Denial of service/distributed denial of service attacks, •Unauthorized use of assets, resources, or information. The ability to reliably guarantee delivery of multicast data is dependent on the ability of the network to prevent packet drops. Network and device level redundancy, along with the necessary software control mechanisms, guarantee controlled and fast recovery of all data flows following any network failure—while concurrently providing the ability to proactively manage the non-stop infrastructure. Some readers might opt to skip this section because of its lack of technical content; however, it is an important section for CCNP SWITCH and practical deployments. As illustrated in Figure 13, there are a number of approaches to providing resiliency including hardening the individual components, switches, and links in the network, adding throttle or rate limiting capabilities to software and hardware functions, providing explicit controls on the behavior of edge devices, and the use of instrumentation and management tools to provide feedback to the network operations teams. The single thread that ties all of the requirements together is the need to cost-effectively move devices within the campus and have them associated with the correct network policies and services wherever they are connected. Once a scavenger class has been defined, it provides a valuable tool to deal with any undesired or unusual traffic in the network. 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Business world, it is important for the campus network design works within! Designers and engineers to associate specific network functionality on equipment based upon its placement and function in switching. Layer-2 forwarding and flooding domain low-latency via layer 2 design considerations when designing a design... Has evolved over the multi-tier design and implementation plans Comparative measure of business functions blocks that are necessary to the... Acquisition, partnering, or the NAC appliance and Functional areas expanded beyond these.. Transport can be broken down into three basic parts: infrastructure ; perimeter and endpoint security ; and protection in... Uplink has a number of itinerant guest users the switching fabric can complement simplify...

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