Crop pests include weeds, insects, pathogens, and rodents. Past techniques limited mainly to selection among phenotypes (visible traits in the field), and classical genetics will be strengthened by building a seamless connection from gene to genome to phenotype utilizing high-throughput, genomic map-based, and marker-assisted selection and related techniques, through integrated breeding platforms supported by modern data management systems. The infrastructural facilities like transport network, marketing and storage facilities are also very crucial for the successful cultivation of HYV. Transgenic rice plants with Bt gene have proven to be highly resistant to all lepidopterans, including stem borers such as yellow stem borer, striped stem borer and pink stem borer, and rice leaf folders in field trials. In the areas exclusively dependent on rains (Brahmaputra Val­ley) and in the dry farming areas (Rajasthan, Marathwada, etc.) The high-yielding varieties developed by classical plant breeders have been essential to maintaining adequate food supplies for the ever-expanding world population (Bennetzen, 1996). Tasawar Abbas, ... Robert J. Kremer, in Advances in Agronomy, 2018. The yield potential of these varieties was greater in the temperate regions of Asia and in the dry season in the monsoon region than in the humid tropics, because of the longer hours of sunshine and hence the greater potential photosynthesis available to the plant. TOS 7. In 2009, Bt eggplant was approved for commercialization in India, but the Indian government continues to impose a moratorium on its release because of public resentment (Jain, 2010). The side effects of pesticides include killing of susceptible nontarget species and disturbance of biodiversity. Data are col-lected from as many sites as are available and statistically analyzed. Irrigation practices have caused salinization and waterlogging of cultivated soils. High Yielding Varieties Seeds are undoubtedly land substituting, water economizing, more la­bour using, and employment generating innovation; nevertheless, they are very delicate and sensitive and therefore require a great deal of care if a successful harvest is to be obtained. Studies shows the role of microRNAs in tomato fruit development and ripening (Meli et al., 2010; Molesini et al., 2012; Karlova et al., 2013). As the human population soars well beyond 7 billion people, so does the demand for food. At the same time, decreased levels of ethylene in RNAi-ACS fruits lead to altered levels of various ripening-specific transcripts (i.e., upregulation of PA biosynthesis, ascorbic acid metabolism genes, and downregulation of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme genes). Early maturation: The high yielding varieties of crops take less time for maturing. The Jat farmers who came to India from Pakistan in 1947 were found more industrious and superior in techniques of cultivation in comparison to the other farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. D.B. Apart from benefits gained from these practices, they have also given rise to unexpected outcomes bearing threats to sustainability of such practices as well as survival of human beings and other life forms on Earth. As a matter of fact, electric power has a vital role in the development and extension of HYV. The perennial varieties mature in 190-220 days while the annual ones in 190-230 days. Postharvest losses deteriorate the quality and economic viability of many high-yielding varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). That's a lot of mouths to feed! They pose the biggest challenge to food production worldwide since the start of agriculture. Barley also requires reasonably high levels of management with a good herbicide and fungicide programme to achieve yields. It is mainly because of the human factor that the agricultural incomes of the farmers, having almost the same size of holdings in a village, vary from each other. Grigg, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. In order to get a satisfactory agricultural return, the farmer should be in a posi­tion to arrange the costly inputs on time for which sufficient surplus capital should be available. The experts and re­searchers who attempted to assess the role of human element in the adoption of agricultural innovations found great variations in the ag­ricultural practices and yield levels of different farmers living within a micro region of a village. During the 1950s and 1960s, new strains of wheat and maize were developed to reduce the food shortages in poor countries (the Green Revolution). Unfortunately, the credit agencies in India, generally, serve the larger farmers who are economically well off and politically well connected. Kailash C. Samal, Gyana Ranjan Rout, in Genetic Engineering of Horticultural Crops, 2018. Thus controlled irri­gation is the key to success of new varieties of cereals. The criteria for selection are high yield, disease resistance, response to fertilisers, tolerance to climate, etc. One of the important fac­tors which contributed to the success of new seeds in the states of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh is the elaborate irrigation infrastructure in the form of canals, tube wells and pumping sets. The Federal Ministry of Science and Technology has released 19 new high yield crop varieties to enhance agricultural production. Among many useful aids which increase the efficiency of the farmers are seed-cum-fertilizer-drill, well de­signed plant protection equipment’s, Dunlop-carts, trolley, threshers, sprayers and tractors. The recom­mended dose of chemical fertilizer for the new seeds of wheat and rice in terms of NPK in 90-45-45 kg per hectare. The chimeric RNAi-ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase) construct designed to target ACS homologs effectively repressed ethylene production in tomato fruits and enhanced tomato shelf-life by 45 days. HYV are water thirsty. Without irrigation, a surfeit of other inputs, therefore, is of no avail. Domestication of wild plants triggered manipulation of nature for agricultural practices. fruitful - productive or conducive to producing in abundance; "be fruitful and multiply". The lifestyle of the farmers and their aspirations for better stand­ard of living also determine their efficiency. Conventional breeding has been an effective means for developing high-yielding varieties; however, it has its own limitations. Introduction of such high-yielding varieties of wheat depends crucially on the availability of fertilisers, adequate water supply, pesticides and insecticides. They require several watering at the critical stages of growth and flowering. In the case of non-availability of capital, the farmer should have an easy access to the credit facilities. The cost of these losses amounts to Rs. The greatest achievement in the field of agriculture is the development of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insect-resistant crops using plant transgenic technology. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The problems of crop disease and infestation by insects may also be overcome by timely application of herbicides, fungicides, insecti­cides, nematicides and rodenticides. It grows HYV are, however, not very successful in the areas of heavy rainfall. Weed management in arable lands involves direct and indirect methods. The varieties of pigeon pea Jai Prakash has developed many pigeon pea varieties viz. As a matter of fact, in many cases, man behind the machine becomes more important than the machine itself. The introduction of plant monocultures and indiscriminate and widespread application of chemical pesticides resulted in an insurgence of pests, development of resistance, and occurrence of residual toxicity. The cultivation of delicate and highly sensitive seeds of new varieties needs the services of qualified and committed extension agents. The irrigation fields enriched with heavy energy input of NPK create a micro climate (hot and humid) in the field which helps in the luxurious growth of plants. Nigeria releases 19 high yield crop varieties, one chicken breed to farmers By AgroBusiness Times on September 4, 2018 The Federal Ministry of Science and Technology produced 19 new varieties of crops with a high yield to increase agricultural production. MiR156 targets an important gene in fruit ripening, colorless never ripe (CNR), as reported by Molesini et al. The new varieties introduced since the first HYVs are now often referred to as MVs (modern varieties). The problem may be tackled either by developing the dis­ease resistant seeds or by spraying insecticides and pesticides at the prescribed schedules devised for different crops. Although, it involves centuries old practices, a major breakthrough in pest control was the development of pesticides. The storage period of tomatoes could be addressed by a specific approach called RNA-based interference technology or RNAi. The response of traditional varieties to chemical fertilizers is more in terms of vigorous vegetative growth which leads to pre-harvest lodging of the crop. Availability of electric power which is the nucleous of all technological development is imperative for multiple cropping under the HYV programme. In addition to feeding humans, we also need plant-based crops to feed livestock and use for bio-energy. KEYWORDS High-yielding rice, grain yield, total This leads to the intensification of agriculture and rapid transformation in the crop­ping patterns. Modern farming tools and technology like tractors, threshers and sprayers are also imperative for the successful cultivation of HYV. The personal qualities of a farmer, his at­titude, beliefs, aspirations, progressiveness, and education, lifestyle and family values determine his capacity to adopt an agricultural innova­tion. Crop genotypes play a dominant role in crop production systems. The highest yields are achieved in areas of well-managed irrigation and with adequate amounts of chemical fertilizers. , 1986). Poor yielding genetics rarely produce high yields. Apart from controlling pest populations, they have posed new challenges. Therefore, pest management is an important component of crop production since its inception (Oerke, 2006). The reduced levels of CHS mRNA and enzymatic CHS activity and the levels of anthocyanins were downregulated, and precursors of the flavonoids pathway were shunted to the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to large increases in levels of (hydroxy) cinnamoyl glucose esters. The highest β-carotene content reached 1.6 μg per g in rice grains. A brief discussion on the inputs and infrastructure requirements for HYV is imperative to ascertain the myth and reality of the success of the Green Revolution in India. Raising of three and four crops from the same field in one year is possible only if modern tech­nology is available to the farmer. A combination of very high transgene expression and improved protein stability resulted in mortality of even Bt-resistant insects (Kota et al., 1999). To evaluate different varieties of rice for their growth and The challenge of food security still continues and demands the adoption of new approaches to ensure safe and sufficient food for everyone. The National Variety Release Committee (NVRC) approved the … The variations in the income and dedication of the farmer to his oc­cupation are thus the major determinants in the fast or slow adoption of new innovations in agriculture. Breeding of new varieties of rice and wheat has continued since the 1960s, increasingly in research stations in the countries where they are to be grown. Already, 16 PAU recommended high yield varieties are being sown in Punjab, which includes PAU developed varsities (both long and short duration) like PMH-1, PMH -2, PMH 11, Parkash-1. high-yield variety Crop that has been specially bred or selected to produce more than the natural varieties of the same species. They should advance loans to the farmers at a reasonable rate of interest. HYV can also fetch handsome amounts to the farmers only if a good market for the disposal of the commodity is available within a short distance of the place of production. Several insecticidal Bt genes have been transformed into various types of rice, and all showed great potential for controlling the most important insect pests in rice. Potentially, pests may reduce the yield of wheat by more than 50% and that of cotton more than 80%. Similarly, through the RNAi technique, two ripening-specific ethylene-induced N-glycoprotein modifying enzymes, α-mannosidase (α-Man) and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), were targeted and the shelf-life of tomato was enhanced by ≈2–2.5-fold with firmer fruits. Qingyao Shu, Dianxing Wu, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. For the successful cultivation of HYV, there should be an efficient extension service which may guide the farmers about the various ag­ricultural operations and precautions. The natural fertility of land is declining with the passage of time. High Yielding Varieties Seeds are undoubtedly land substituting, water economizing, more la­bour using, and employment generating innovation; nevertheless, they are very delicate and sensitive and therefore require a great deal of care if a successful harvest is to be obtained. BARLEY – High yield forage with good levels of energy, starch and effective fibre. Many farmers, especially those in environments where high-yield crop and livestock varieties do not prosper, rely on a wide range of crop and livestock types. With this technology, the rice breeder is now able to transfer and incorporate desirable genes into rice genome, no matter where the gene comes from. Therefore, a search continues for new nonconventional weed control methods aimed at utilization of biological weed control approaches. Transgenic tomato plants targeting more than one homolog than a single unit of ACC oxidase by using RNAi technology during the ripening stage would be more effective than a single homolog (Gupta et al., 2013). In several districts of Punjab and Haryana irrigation facilities are avail­able to each and every hectare of land. In the case of wheat, for example, appropriate timing and spacing of ir­rigation raise the yield by as much as 50 per cent even if the other in­puts are not given. The proper grading and leveling of fields helps in reducing water losses, and economize on la­bour required for irrigation. Bt toxin is a crystal insecticidal protein (δ-endotoxin) produced from the cryo gene of a spore-forming soil bacterium B. thuringiensis. Threats posed by conventional weed control methods to environment, food quality, and human health are discussed below followed by the discussion of the feasibility for developing the most efficient biological weed control approaches. Although it positively regulates fruit ripening, it also negatively regulates ethylene synthesis (Karlova et al., 2013). If the timely spray is not done the crops of the region may vanish. Although a few improved high-yielding varieties of cardamom have been evolved, combining yield and cardamom mosaic resistance has not been possible. High-yielding varieties are frequently also high-maintenance varieties. The Bt gene encodes the delta-endotoxin highly toxic to lepidopteran insects. Within any agricultural community, the individuals vary in their receptivity of innovations and new agricultural techniques. For example, in the valley of Brahmaputra, Barak, and the hilly tracts of northeast India, there is heavy rainfall during the sum­mer season. In the case of rice, inadequacy of moisture in the primordial initiation (flowering, milk­ing and grain forming stages) can reduce production to the extent of 50 per cent. 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